When to consider surgery
Epilepsy is a common medical condition estimated to affect 2.6 million americans every year. In 2018, the CDC estimates that among those taking medication, only 44% report having their seizures completely controlled. Epilepsy surgery is a viable alternative to patients who are unable to control their seizures through medications.
Before deciding on surgery, factors such as type and frequency of seizures, medication burden (including cost and side effects), and overall impact on quality of life need to be taken into account. Typically, surgery is considered as an option for patients whose seizures fail to be controlled on medications. It is recommended that a person try at least two or more seizure medications before considering surgery.
Although surgery has its risks, in well qualified patients it can have quite a high success rate of stopping seizures completely. Most people with epilepsy fear surgery and think of it as a “last resort”, however several studies have found that early surgical intervention has greater long-term benefits. Most surgical risks are rare whereas continued frequent seizures pose daily risks of injuries, medication burden, and social/ psychological impact.
The most important part of evaluation for surgical intervention is determining where in the brain the seizures originate from and then determining if you would benefit from a surgical intervention in this area.
This is typically done through a combination of brain imaging, EEGs, and description of the patient’s seizures.